Methylammonium-free, high-performance, and stable perovskite solar cells on a planar architecture

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Currently, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with high performances greater than 20% contain bromine (Br), causing a suboptimal bandgap, and the thermally unstable methylammonium (MA) molecule. Avoiding Br and especially MA can therefore result in more optimal bandgaps and stable perovskites. We show that inorganic cation tuning, using rubidium and cesium, enables highly crystalline formamidinium-based perovskites without Br or MA. On a conventional, planar device architecture, using polymeric interlayers at the electron- and hole-transporting interface, we demonstrate an efficiency of 20.35% (stabilized), one of the highest for MA-free perovskites, with a drastically improved stability reached without the stabilizing influence of mesoporous interlayers. The perovskite is not heated beyond 100°C. Going MA-free is a new direction for perovskites that are inherently stable and compatible with tandems or flexible substrates, which are the main routes commercializing PSCs.